Title

When Cultures Clash Electronically: The Impact of Email and Social Norms on Negotiation Behavior and Outcomes

Publication Date

5-1-2012

Abstract

This research examines the extent to which the email medium exacerbates the aggressiveness of opening offers made by negotiators from two distinct cultures. Hypotheses derived from negotiation, communication, and culture research predict that Hong Kong Chinese negotiators using email would exhibit a reactance effect and consequently engage in more aggressive opening offers and claim higher distributive outcomes than similar negotiators in the United States. Study 1 examines intercultural email negotiations and results indicate that Hong Kong Chinese negotiators made more aggressive opening offers and attained higher distributive outcomes than their U.S. counterparts. Study 2 results replicate Study 1 findings in an intracultural negotiation setting and also show favorable outcomes for Hong Kong email negotiators when compared to both Hong Kong and U.S. face-to-face negotiators. Overall, the findings suggest that Hong Kong Chinese and U.S. negotiators vary substantially in how they negotiate via email and face to face, which results in differences in distributive outcomes.

Publication Title

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

Volume

43

Issue

4

First Page

628

Last Page

643

DOI

10.1177/0022022111407190

Version

pre-print, post-print (with 12 month embargo)

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