Fluorotelomer Acids are More Toxic Than Perfluorinated Acids
Saturated and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids have been identified as intermediates in the degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols to perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Although surface waters are the likely environmental sink for telomer acids, no fate or toxicity data exist for this matrix. We assessed the acute toxicity of the 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 saturated (FTCA) and unsaturated (FTUCA) fluorotelomer carboxylic acids to Daphnia magna, Chironomus tentans, and Lemna gibba. In general, toxicity increased with increasing fluorocarbon (FC) chain length, particularly for telomer acids of ≥8 FCs. In addition, the FTCAs were generally more toxic than the corresponding FTUCAs. Acute EC50s ranged from 0.025 mg/L (0.04 μmol/L) for D. magna (10:2 FTCA, immobility) to 63 mg/L (167 μmol/L) for C. tentans (6:2 FTCA, growth). While chain-length trends observed in the current study agree with those previously reported for PFCAs, the toxicity thresholds generated here are up to 10 000 times smaller. Our data provide the first evidence that PFCA precursors are more toxic than the PFCAs themselves.
Environmental Science And Technology
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Phillips, Michelle M.; Dinglasan-Panlilio, M. Joyce A.; Mabury, Scott A.; Solomon, Keith R.; and Sibley, Paul K., "Fluorotelomer Acids are More Toxic Than Perfluorinated Acids" (2007). SIAS Faculty Publications. 301.