Disentangling Ribbon Worm Relationships: Multi-Locus Analysis Supports Traditional Classification of the Phylum Nemertea
The phylogenetic relationships of selected members of the phylum Nemertea are explored by means of six markers amplified from the genomic DNA of freshly collected specimens (the nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes, histones H3 and H4, and the mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I). These include all previous markers and regions used in earlier phylogenetic analyses of nemerteans, therefore acting as a scaffold to which one could pinpoint any previously published study. Our results, based on analyses of static and dynamic homology concepts under probabilistic and parsimony frameworks, agree in the non-monophyly of Palaeonemertea and in the monophyly of Heteronemerta and Hoplonemertea. The position of Hubrechtella and the Pilidiophora hypothesis are, however, sensitive to analytical method, as is the monophyly of the non-hubrechtiid palaeonemerteans. Our results are, however, consistent with the main division of Hoplonemertea into Polystilifera and Monostilifera, the last named being divided into Cratenemertea and Distromatonemertea, as well as into the main division of Heteronemertea into Baseodiscus and the remaining species. The study also continues to highlight the deficient taxonomy at the family and generic level within Nemertea and sheds light on the areas of the tree that require further refinement.
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Andrade, Sonia C. S.; Strand, Malin; Schwartz, Megan L.; Chen, Haixia; Kajihara, Hiroshi; von Dohren, Jorn; Sun, Shichun; Junoy, Juan; Thiel, Martin; Norenburg, Jon L.; Turbeville, James M.; Giribet, Gonzalo; and Sundberg, Per, "Disentangling Ribbon Worm Relationships: Multi-Locus Analysis Supports Traditional Classification of the Phylum Nemertea" (2012). SIAS Faculty Publications. 262.
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