What's Holding Women Back From Creating Leadership Parity?

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Book Chapter


This chapter examines the differences between female and male leaders in organizational settings. Female leaders differ in styles and skills. Women at the executive level and on executive teams positively affect the organizational bottom line just as much as, or more than, their male counterparts do. Women, however, are under-represented at the management level nationwide; yet, they continue to effectively contribute to their organizational environments, though they have not broken through the hardest of glass ceilings. What causes such under-representation despite women having made gains in their attempts to crack the glass ceiling? There are two factors women leaders have to contend with: social influence biases and perceptions of what womenÕs roles and responsibilities should be. These two factors hold women back from reaching parity with men. They are the external drivers of structural, cultural and other discriminatory barriers and the internal drivers of biases and perceptions.

Publication Title

Leadership for Improvement: Perceptions, Influences and Gender Differences

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